古玩行2019精品推荐第11期:中华民国开国纪念币壹圆

时间:2019-11-08 20:38:56来源:宜宾视窗

1911年12月29 日,经辛亥革命后,已光复的17省代表在南京推选孙中山为中华民国临时大总统。1912年1月3日,中华民国政府宣告成立,清朝灭亡,在中国持续2000 多年的封建君主专制随之结束。民国成立时,由于币制尚未建立,除四川改铸大汉银币,福建改铸中华元宝外,主要的造币厂,大都仍沿用前清钢模铸造银币,以供流通需要。由于币制混乱,临时政府财政部长陈锦涛,于民国元年3月11日呈文大总统孙中山,鼓铸1000万元纪念银币以为整顿。图案采用大总统孙中山肖像,以后的通用银币再改花纹式样。孙中山令财政部行文,同意鼓铸纪念币,并命令其余的通用银币新花纹,“中间应绘五谷模型,取丰岁足民之义,垂劝农务本之规”,训令财政部速制新模,分令各省造币厂照式鼓铸。不久,财政部就颁下新模给江南(南京)、湖北、广东等造币厂依式铸造,这就是“中华民国孙中山像开国纪念币”的由来。

On December 29, 1911, after the revolution of 1911, 17 provincial representatives who had recovered elected Sun Yat-sen as the interim president of the Republic of China in Nanjing. On January 3, 1912, the government of the Republic of China was founded and the Qing Dynasty was destroyed. The feudal autocracy which lasted for more than 2000 years in China ended. When the Republic of China was founded, because the currency system had not yet been established, except for the silver coins of Dahan in Sichuan and Zhonghua Yuanbao in Fujian, most of the major mints still used the steel mould of the former Qing Dynasty to cast silver coins for circulation. Due to the confusion of the currency system, Chen Jintao, the finance minister of the interim government, submitted a letter to Sun Yat-sen, the president of the Republic of China, on March 11, the first year of the Republic of China, calling for 10 million yuan of commemorative silver coins for rectification. The design adopts the portrait of Sun Yat-sen, the great president, and later the general silver coin changes the pattern. Sun Yat-sen ordered the Ministry of finance to write, agreed to drum cast commemorative coins, and ordered the rest of the general silver coins to have new patterns, "in the middle, a model of five grains should be drawn, taking the meaning of the rich, the old and the people, and following the rules of urging the farmers to do business", ordered the Ministry of finance to quickly make new patterns, and ordered the mints of all provinces to drum cast according to the patterns. Soon after, the Ministry of Finance issued a new model to Jiangnan (Nanjing), Hubei, Guangdong and other mints, which was the origin of "the founding commemorative coins of Sun Yat Sen of the Republic of China".

 

【藏品名称】:中华民国开国纪念币壹圆

[collection name]: one yuan of commemorative coins of the founding of the Republic of China

【类别】;钱币

[type]; coins

民国成立时,由于币制尚未建立,除四川改铸大汉银币,福建改铸中华元宝外,主要的造币厂,大都仍沿用前清钢模铸造银币,以供流通需要。由于币制混乱,临时政府财政部长陈锦涛,于民国元年3月11日呈文大总统孙中山,鼓铸1000万元纪念银币以为整顿。图案采用大总统孙中山肖像,以后的通用银币再改花纹式样。孙中山令财政部行文,同意鼓铸纪念币,并命令其余的通用银币新花纹,“中间应绘五谷模型,取丰岁足民之义,垂劝农务本之规”,训令财政部速制新模,分令各省造币厂照式鼓铸。不久,财政部就颁下新模给江南(南京)、湖北、广东等造币厂依式铸造,这就是“中华民国孙中山像开国纪念币”的由来。

When the Republic of China was founded, because the currency system had not yet been established, except for the silver coins of Dahan in Sichuan and Zhonghua Yuanbao in Fujian, most of the major mints still used the steel mould of the former Qing Dynasty to cast silver coins for circulation. Due to the confusion of the currency system, Chen Jintao, the finance minister of the interim government, submitted a letter to Sun Yat-sen, the president of the Republic of China, on March 11, the first year of the Republic of China, calling for 10 million yuan of commemorative silver coins for rectification. The design adopts the portrait of Sun Yat-sen, the great president, and later the general silver coin changes the pattern. Sun Yat-sen ordered the Ministry of finance to write, agreed to drum cast commemorative coins, and ordered the rest of the general silver coins to have new patterns, "in the middle, a model of five grains should be drawn, taking the meaning of the rich, the old and the people, and following the rules of urging the farmers to do business", ordered the Ministry of finance to quickly make new patterns, and ordered the mints of all provinces to drum cast according to the patterns. Soon after, the Ministry of Finance issued a new model to Jiangnan (Nanjing), Hubei, Guangdong and other mints, which was the origin of "the founding commemorative coins of Sun Yat Sen of the Republic of China".

背面中央为中文隶书体“壹圆”及嘉禾,边缘英文“中华民国”、“壹圆”,左右分列五角星(后改为六角星)。直线边齿,俗称“小头”。该币作为中华民国国币发行,流通甚广,数量较多。中华民国孙像开国纪念币银元,并非都是民国元年铸造。民国16年、17年南京和天津造币厂均有铸造,但采用的全是“中华民国开国纪念币”的年代。中华民国孙像开国纪念币银元,由于铸造厂家不一,铸造年代不同,雕刻师英语水平不高,除正背面主要图案未变外,其花饰细节、英文字母均有变异,特别是英文字母差错较多。这就形成了该币的多种版别。传世较广的主要有两种:一种是五角星版式,一种是六角星版式

In the center of the back is the Chinese clerical style "Yiyuan" and Jiahe, with the edge of the English "Republic of China" and "Yiyuan", with five pointed stars (later changed to hexagon star). Straight edge teeth, commonly known as "small head". As the currency of the Republic of China, it is widely circulated and has a large number. The silver dollar, the commemorative coin of the founding of Sun Xiang in the Republic of China, was not all minted in the first year of the Republic of China. In the 16th and 17th years of the Republic of China, the mints of Nanjing and Tianjin were all minted, but all of them adopted the "commemorative coins of the founding of the Republic of China". The silver dollar, the commemorative coin of the founding of Sun Xiang in the Republic of China, is not very good at English because of different foundries, different casting times, and the Engravers' English level. Except for the main patterns on the front and back, there are variations in the details of flower decorations and English letters, especially the errors in English letters. This resulted in a variety of types of the coin. There are two main types that have been handed down widely: the pentagram and the hexagon

 

关于五角星版式。从五角星的方位设置、花饰的细微差别区分:1.下五角星版。民国元年(公元1912年)南京造币厂根据财政部的命令,首先铸造了中华民国孙像开国纪念币。银元正面中央镌孙中山侧面肖像,外围双圈 (内一线圈,外珠点圈),边缘上镌中文隶书体“中华民国”4字,下镌中文隶书体“开国纪念币”5字,左右长枝花饰。背面中央竖镌中文隶书体“壹圆”及嘉禾;外围双圈(内一线圈,外珠点圈),边缘上镌英文“THEREPUBLICOFCHINA”(中华民国),下镌英文“ONEDOLLAR”(壹元),左右下方分列五角星。故称下五角星版。该币的特点是:五角星方位在下,左右两个五角星摆放较正。五角星与英文字母间距较近。英文字母没有错版。袁世凯窃取大总统后,该币即停铸,因时间短暂,流用不多,尤显珍贵。2.上五角星版。此币也是比较少见的一种,可谓凤毛麟角。该币由天津造币厂于民国17年(公元1928年)铸造。银元正面及背面大体与上品相同,左右上方分列五角星。故称上五角星版。该币的特点是:五角星方位在上,五角星摆放左边较正,右边较向内斜。五角星与英文字母间距较远。英文字母没有错版。

About Pentagram layout. From the five pointed star's azimuth setting, the flower decoration's subtle difference distinguishes: 1. The next five pointed star version. In the first year of the Republic of China (1912 A.D.), Nanjing mint, according to the order of the Ministry of finance, first struck the commemorative coins of the founding of the Republic of China. On the front of the silver dollar, Sun Yat Sen's side portrait is engraved in the center, and on the outside, there are two circles (inner circle, outer bead circle). On the edge, there are four characters of Chinese official script "Republic of China" and five characters of Chinese official script "Founding commemorative coins", with long branches and flowers on the left and right. In the center of the back is engraved the Chinese official script "one circle" and Jiahe; in the outer double circle (inner circle, outer bead circle), on the edge is engraved the English "therepublicofchina" (Republic of China), and under is engraved the English "onedollar" (one yuan), with five stars at the bottom left and right. So it's called the next pentagram. The characteristics of the coin are: the five pointed star is in the lower position, and the left and right two five pointed stars are in the right position. Pentagram is close to English letters. There are no wrong versions of English letters. After Yuan Shikai stole the president, the coin was stopped. Because of the short time, it was rarely used, especially precious. 2. Upper pentagram. This coin is also a rare one. The coin was struck by Tianjin Mint in the 17th year of the Republic of China (1928). The obverse and the back of the silver dollar are roughly the same as those of the first grade, with five pointed stars at the top left and right. So it's called the pentagram. The characteristics of the coin are: the pentagram is in the upper position, the left side of the pentagram is relatively straight, and the right side is relatively inward inclined. Pentagram is far away from English letters. There are no wrong versions of English letters.

 

关于六角星版式。民国14年,国民政府又在广州成立,民国15年迁武汉,民国16年(公元1927年)定都南京。为纪念国父孙中山丰功伟绩,中央所铸货币均用国父像,南京、天津诸造币厂于民国16年、17年重新铸造中华民国孙像开国纪念币。银元正面及背面基本上与前品相同,而左右上方分列六角星。纪重27克。由于该币正背面图案比较正规,中英文没有差错,又设置六角星,故称其为普通六角星版。由于当时发行量很少,导致目前存世量更少,有很高的收藏价值。

About the hexagon layout. In the 14th year of the Republic of China, the national government was established in Guangzhou, moved to Wuhan in the 15th year of the Republic of China, and established its capital in Nanjing in the 16th year of the Republic of China (1927 A.D.). In order to commemorate the great achievements of Sun Yat-sen, all the coins of the central government were made with the image of the father of the state. In the 16th and 17th years of the Republic of China, the mints of Nanjing and Tianjin recast the commemorative coins of the founding of the Republic of China. The front and back of the silver dollar are basically the same as the former, while the top left and right are hexagons. It weighs 27g. As the obverse and reverse of the coin are relatively regular, there is no error in Chinese and English, and there is also a hexagon star, so it is called the ordinary hexagon star version. Due to the small circulation at that time, the current amount of life is less, which has a high collection value.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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